Mayor of Hell (1933)Danny Like BannerThe Particulars of the Picture

Mayor of Hell Frankie Darro MayorOfHell1933 James Cagney MayorOfHell1933 Dudley Digges
Jimmy …
Frankie Darro
Patsy …
James Cagney
Thompson …
Dudley Digges
MayorOfHell1933 Madge Evans MayorOfHell1933 Arthur Byron Archie Mayo
Dorothy …
Madge Evans
Judge Gilbert …
Arthur Byron
Directed by
Archie Mayo

The Mayor of Hell: Reforming the Reformers

Reeducation or punishment? As I’ll go into moreso next week with The Big House, the American justice system has always been caught between a humanitarian desire to help criminals or degrading them in the name of revenge.

The sin in Archie Mayo’s Mayor of Hell is that even juvenile delinquents are stuck in a system that doesn’t have a solid plan for them. They’re put in a reform school which resembles more of a labor camp, and forced to eat the worst food imaginable. Any attempts at resistance are met with brutal, gleeful retribution. The lesson to the kids isn’t that what they’ve done is wrong, but that society is cruel and horrible and deserves whatever it gets coming to it. Not the best of plans.

As this is a Warner Brothers flick from the early 30’s, it drew its inspiration from the real issues that the country’s criminal justice system was facing. It also pulled in a bevy of tough kid actors and their own big star, James Cagney, to create a sensationalistic picture that would show a solution this issue, and the dire, fiery consequences that the old ways could result in.

These poor mugs don't have a chance.

These poor mugs don’t have a chance.

We begin with a street gang of kids in their mid-teens, something more familiar to the Depression Era than today. They’re running a protection racket– give us a quarter and we’ll make sure your car isn’t missing any parts when you return– and making a mint. It’s only after their attempt to rob a general store results in a serious injury do they get brought to court.

They’re a veritable Half-Dirty Dozen. There’s an Irish kid, a black kid, a Jewish kid, a wormy kid, and a quiet, nice kid who has a rather unsavory cough. Jimmy Smith is the ringleader, cool, charismatic and quick with the punch. He’s played by Frankie Darro in a role that would have made him a teen idol if the concept had been around back in the 30’s. He smolders with an intensity born from a bad home and a defiant streak that will get him in a great deal of trouble.

But back to the gang, real quick. We’re taken painstakingly through their arraignment, where we see each boy defended (or given up by) their parent. The Irish kid’s father is a drunk, the Jewish boy has a father who is cheap, the black boy… well, at least he gets a joke in, and one that’s not at his own expense.

Surprisingly tasteful.

Surprisingly tasteful.

The glimpses of the boys’ background is vital here, and shows what a pointed proposition Mayor of Hell makes itself out to be. While the Jewish father gives his boy to the reform school once he hears it’s free, he still has a brief heart to heart with his boy in Yiddish, assuring that he loves him very much. The film both revels in stereotypes, but humanizes them at the same time; a tricky balance.

They’re brought to Peakstown State Reformatory, where they’re introduced to Mr. Thompson for whom the word ‘sadism’ may as well be emblazoned on his forehead. He’s meticulous in his punishments, skims money off the top, and revels in his dictatorship. Jimmy and Thompson immediately butt heads, or, should I say, Thompson slaps Jimmy on the face and sneers.

There’s hope for the young boys in the form of angelic nurse Dorothy, who complains about their treatment. Thompson laughs her off, even in regards to a young boy with a bad cough.


Sadly, not Ernest Escapes a Boys Reformatory.

Their next angel comes in the form of none other than Patsy, a cog in the local political machine. He’s gotten enough votes wrangled that he’s appointed junior commissioner of the reform school, a no-work job that nets him a tidy legitimate salary.

At least that’s the plan, but the night he arrives he sees Jimmy make an escape attempt, which includes some daring stunts including a painful try at climbing a barbed wire laced fence. This and Dorothy’s dedication stirs something within him– a nostalgia, of sorts. He uses his clout to get full control of the school and take it from its fascist roots into a full fledged republic.

Jimmy is elected mayor (for his ability to lick any other boy, naturally), and soon the camp has changed into an open, positive place with its own police force, government, store and system of rules and punishment. Court cases are tried by juries of their peers, and the food is now bacon and eggs, every day. Even the guards are let go.

The defendant stole a chocolate bar. I pronounce him guilty of being a dick and not sharing with the rest of us!

The defendant stole a chocolate bar. I pronounce him guilty of being a dick and not sharing with the rest of us!

If it weren’t for the slickness of the production and the commitment of the boys in their roles, it would be a lot harder to buy this idealized situation. The film immediately proffers up this democratic setup as a utopia, with a place for every man and justice for all.

Coming on the heels of Roosevelt’s election in 1932 and as sort of a reaction to the beliefs that were being espoused in films like the proto-evangelical fascism in Gabriel Over the White House just the year before, it’s understandable to try and illustrate that the system can not only still function, but make its citizens happier and more prosperous than the alternative. The alternative, of course, was gaining traction on the other side of the Atlantic in Germany and Italy.

After Jimmy makes the decision not to escape the new guard-less camp, he finally bonds with Patsy and Dorothy over his ability to draw. This can only mean it’s time for the film’s third act.

You just knew I'd be able to fit another picture of Cagney in here, right?

You just knew I’d be able to fit another picture of Cagney in here, right?

Patsy’s called back to deal with an insurgent in his organization, and accidentally shoots a man during a tussle. Patsy, in a very un-Cagney like moment, is unnerved by the possibility of taking a human life, shaking nervously. He goes on the lam, leaving the reformatory back in the dreaded hands of Thompson.

Thompson is only too gleeful to oblige, and soon he’s got the guards working the boys harder before with even worse food. Dorothy resigns in protest, and Jimmy is punished for daring to even ask for her reinstatement. When a group of boys are caught breaking into a food store, the boy with a cough replaces Jimmy in the cooler, a small pen in the middle of the school grounds lets the wind in at night. Unsurprisingly, to almost everyone, the boy doesn’t last the night.

What happens next is as crazy and as powerful as anything else you may see in a 30’s Warner Picture, with hundreds of boys– well, I’ll touch on that below. The lesson of Mayor of Hell is that people will fight for every inch of power they’ve got; if people share the power though, the world can become equitable and fair.

"Don't go towards the light! Don't go towards... that light! Yes, that one! Now stop! No, go backwards! ... Backwards! Like, reverse!"

“Don’t go towards the light! Don’t go towards… that light! Yes, that one! Now stop! No, go backwards! … Backwards! Like, reverse!”

Of course, like I said before, that doesn’t address the corrupting problems in a democracy, which ignores that while Patsy becomes reformed by this microcosm of democracy, he’s left his own racketeering ring to continue in its stead. Society remains overall corrupt, still putting people like Thompson in power and run by the wills of the powerful; maybe this newer, purer society of delinquents can save it.

Yeah, right.

The Star Attractions

Director Archie Mayo (Doorway to Hell) creates an engaging and electrifying story here, which makes great use of Cagney and the cast of hundreds of extras. It has to be noted that Cagney is essentially a supporting player here, as the story of Jimmy’s resistance and reform dominate the picture.

But let’s not short his performance either. It’s still got the Cagney zip, and the way the man can toss off slight indifference with a big grin is worth its weight in gold. There are a lot of great little moments for him too, like how he casually pushes over an underling who gets in his face.

Digges wants to get the hell out of this town.

Digges wants to get the hell out of this boy’s town.

Cagney’s presence helps elevate the film, and it’s noted in several sources that he found that this role hit close to home for him. Even though Cagney’s star power was certainly above making this sort of film, he went with it because he believed in the material, and he gives it his all.

Cagney’s also met tit-for-tat by Dudley Digges as Thompson, whose cruelty is portrayed with just the slightest hint of humanity. The faintest glimpse of guilt and horror covers his face at key moments, even if the rest of the time he’s a gleeful bully.

Madge Evans (who looks eerily like Kristen Bell) is serviceable as Dorothy though mostly a smile or a scowl depending on the scene. Allen Jenkins has a few amusing scenes as Cagney’s henchman, and Arthur Byron plays an appropriately scowl-y good judge.

But the stars of the picture are the young boys. They were culled from a number of places– including a former member of Our Gang– but all turn in touching, sweet performances in an almost unbelievably uniform manner.

Frankie Darro, attempting an early version of the Ziggy Stardust look.

Frankie Darro, early Ziggy Stardust without a cause.

Again, Frankie Darro is the big attraction. His other big picture, Wild Boys of the Road (listed as one of my essential pre-codes), demonstrates a special ability to smoulder on cue. Unfortunately the actor’s short stature doomed him to horse jockey roles (no joke, he was in the Marx Brothers’ Day at the Races), and it’s a shame because he is wonderful leading man material.

I’m going to spend a bit talking about the ending next, but I wanted to sum things up for those of you who are going to skip it: The Mayor of Hell is a virtuoso thrill ride, a testament to fiery social film making that may not be fully baked but one that gives the audience something to chew on. When people say, ‘they don’t make them like that anymore,’ this is that ‘that’.

The Fiery Climax

[Spoilers be here, skip to the next section to miss out!]

The film’s current ending was initially heavily opposed by the Hays Office, and, in fact, was not the one originally shot. However, those in the upper offices felt the one filmed to placate the censors lacked punch.

"No, reshoot this, please! That's a lousy climax to the film!"

“No, reshoot this, please! That’s a lousy climax to the film!”

That version had the boys riot, take over the reformatory’s armory, and arrest Thompson. Thompson, on the stand and accused of murdering the young boy, decides to kill himself by jumping out the window. Not the most satisfying conclusion to such a cruel man, but one that may have gotten by a few censor boards.

A few weeks after filming had wrapped, however, Warner Brothers asked director Michael Curtiz (he of Casablanca and Mandalay fame) to come back and shoot the ending as it was originally written; it’s sensationalism would do a lot better in arousing the filmgoer’s passions, even if it runs contrary to the film’s lessons in democratic process.

This climax involves chasing Thompson past that broken window, and trapping him on the roof of the barn. The mob of boys then sets the barn on fire and cheers gleefully when Thompson falls to his death, first through a fence of barbed wire and then hitting his head on a rock in the pig sty. Now that’s a death.



I've had days that have ended like this. Not good days, mind you. But days.

I’ve had days that have ended like this. Not good days, mind you. But days.

Patsy shows up with Dorothy (in the film’s biggest contrivance) and quell the rioting boys. They agree to put out the fire, and the judge arrives a few days later and absolves everyone of any blame. The man Patsy shot lives, and Patsy decides to become the new supervisor. He and Dorothy kiss and all of the kids poke fun at ’em. Damn, being in that reform school looks sweet.

As mentioned before, the film portrays the ultimate triumph of democracy over fascism… even if that ultimate triumph involves mob action. It’s strange for a moment, but in the context of the emerging dictators of the 1930’s, it’s not surprising that one would be arguing for a more equal society. The ‘any means necessary angle’ would disappear after the Production Code became enforced, though, but would definitely be making a reappearance in a big way in American cinema a few decades later.

"Yeah, it all ends happily! For those of us who've lived!"

“Yeah, it all ends happily! For those of us who’ve lived!”

Proof That It’s Pre-Code

  • Watching through the film with its commentary track on (more on that below), you’d be amazed at some of the stuff that was censored. A crying mother mentioning that her son became a murderer after leaving the reformatory: censored. Cagney cleaning off a gun: censored. The rioting boys holding guns: cut to pieces. A line indicating that there was a house with girls in it: eliminated with prejudice. The track is a good reminder why the Pre-Code era ended; because state-level censor boards were insane.
  • Besides the fact that using the word ‘Hell’ in the title was still risque when this was released, during a fistfight Cagney has in the film, he’s heard to exclaim, “Son of a bmmph” with that last word barely muffled in the struggle. Warner Brothers really wanted to go all in with this picture.


Here are some extra screenshots I took. Click on any picture to enlarge!

MayorOfHell19331 MayorOfHell19332 MayorOfHell19335 MayorOfHell193310

MayorOfHell193318 MayorOfHell193320 MayorOfHell193321 MayorOfHell193322

MayorOfHell193327 Mayor of Hell 1933 Kids

Trivia & Links

  • There’s a commentary track by Greg Mank for this picture that covers pretty much everything you could want to know about it, from its stars and filmmakers to the film’s background. It’s a very good listen, with a couple really hilarious stories (Cagney’s as much a character in real life as he was in the pictures). Mank also lists out all of the film’s troubles with state censor boards; it sounds like the movie must have been nigh incomprehensible in New York.
  • The track also points out a couple of parallels in the movie to a passion play, supposing that the Warden is the devil and Jimmy is, of course, Jesus. I think it kind of falls apart near the end (unless I missed the part in the Bible that involved Jesus trying to revenge murder Satan), but it’s an interesting premise.
"Shouldn't you guys be over hanging with Karloff?"

“Shouldn’t you guys be over hanging with Karloff?”

  • Movie Classics reviews the film with quite a bit of detail and compares it to the-unseen-by-me reformatory flick Hell’s House (1932).
  • Cliff over at Immortal Ephemera takes on the film’s villainous Dudley Digges, who was considered one of the great stage actors of his era. He also popped up in The Invisible Man (1933) and The Mutiny on the Bounty (1935).
  • Classic Cinema Gold goes into actress Madge Evans. She was one of those actresses who was always the co-star and never the star.
This looks like no fun, and was probably less fun than that.

This looks like no fun, and was probably less fun than that.

  • John Greco goes over The Mayor of Hell‘s two remakes, which were 1938’s Crime School and 1939’s Hell’s Kitchen. Crime School has Humphrey Bogart in the Cagney role, and Hell’s Kitchen has Ronald Reagan in the expanded role of a lawyer. Both of those two versions (released a year apart!) starred Warner’s stable of ‘Dead End Kids’, who originated in Angels With Dirty Faces… which starred James Cagney and Humphrey Bogart.
  • Doctor Macro has got plenty of posters for this one and a pair of scans. Note that the second screenshot doesn’t depict a scene from anywhere in the film, as Jenkins holds a gun and Cagney looks on perturbed. I wonder if it was staged or if the scene got cut…
Another great moment where the black boy consoles the scared one by grabbing his hand. It reaches beyond the prejudices we usually see, and for the most part eschews a lot of the really nasty racism of the time.

Another great moment where the black boy consoles the scared one by grabbing his hand. It reaches beyond the prejudices we usually see, and for the most part eschews a lot of the really nasty racism of the time.

  • DVD Talk busts out this great line about the film:

Fortunately, with the speed and expertise of the Warner studio system, you don’t have to necessarily believe a thing in The Mayor of Hell to enjoy it, because everything is geared so mechanically and professionally towards getting across the story in as efficient and effective method as possible.

  • Andre Sennwald’s contemporary review in the New York Times compares the film liberally to I Was a Fugitive From a Chain Gang (1932), and only dismisses Madge Evans performance as his only complaint. Noticeably, his review mentions the trial and sentencing of the boys as the beginning of the picture– that’s because in New York the first ten minutes of the hoodlum’s antics were censored. I wonder if Sennwald ever got to see a full cut of it… either way, a reminder of how lucky we are that film studios kept these things intact. Salute your local film preservationist today!
Also your local art director. They're good people. I know one. He's nice.

Also your local art director. They’re good people. I know one. He’s nice.

Awards, Accolades & Availability

 MayorOfHell193312 Jenkins

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Danny is a writer who lives with his lovely wife, adorable children, and geriatric yet yappy dog. He blogs at, a website dedicated to Hollywood films from 1930 to 1934, and can be found on Twitter @PreCodeDotCom.


Grand Old Movies · April 12, 2013 at 6:02 am

A great read! You make perceptive points about how Warner Bros’ films ‘humanized’ stereotypes (it’s really so true of their early-30s films) and also about Frankie Darro, a charismatic actor who should have had a bigger career. As always, I enjoy your pics and your list of what makes a film pre-Code.This film is REALLY pre-Code in its violence and for what it implies about human nature; it’s ending is unnerving to watch–it’s like ‘Lord of the Flies’ with the prison as desert island. Thanks again for a terrific post and also for the link!

    Danny · April 12, 2013 at 4:10 pm

    Sure thing; this film is a powder keg, and one of the pleasures in going through Pre-Code films is rediscovering some of these old Warner Brothers flicks. Thanks for the great post on your end!

Kimbutgar · April 12, 2013 at 6:53 am

I have this movie in my pre-code collection which I brought after seeing this movie on TCM. Great review.

    Danny · April 12, 2013 at 4:09 pm


Patricia Nolan-Hall (@CaftanWoman) · April 12, 2013 at 9:38 am

Loved your look at the movie and the era in which it was made.

Some people automatically see the word “negative” in front of stereotype even when it’s not there. I’m glad you pointed out that the form of stereotype used by Warner’s in this picture is actually more of a character short-hand that gives us a little key into the world of the characters. A 90 minute movie cannot be all things to all people.

“The Mayor of Hell” really plays on our emotions and Frankie Darro just knocks my socks off!

    Danny · April 12, 2013 at 4:13 pm

    I think they do a good job of humanizing the kids here, and the stereotypes work as a foundation for that character development. It’s impressive that the movie can juggle so many kids with such ease, and I think that shortcut helps the movie in getting there even if nowadays we’re fairly leery of doing such a thing. Thanks for the comment, and I’m glad you liked the film!

Kevin Deany · April 12, 2013 at 11:23 am

Very well done, Danny. Speaking of pre-code Fascist type films from the early 1930s, take a gander (if you can find it) at DeMille’s “This Day and Age” (1933) with Charles Bickford. It’s about a group of small town high schoolers who take the law into their own hands when a favorite shop owner is killed by gangsters. It makes “The Mayor of Hell” and “Fury” look like the Mickey Mouse Club. A great addition to the blogathon. Love the visuals as well.

    Danny · April 12, 2013 at 4:23 pm

    Thanks Kevin. I’ve heard of Day and Age before, but I haven’t seen it yet. That’s definitely on the list now. Thanks!

Cliff Aliperti · April 12, 2013 at 12:19 pm

Poor Frankie Darro! So many of those jockey roles only last the duration of a race or two with a line or two at best. He got to star on Poverty Row, even formed a team with Mantan Moreland, but I wish I knew why Warner Brothers didn’t sign him up after the combo of this and “Wild Boys of the Road.”

About “the film’s biggest contrivance,” yeah. I love how this one wraps up for the kids–and Dudley Digges, but Cagney’s story really felt like it had to be forced in there.

Thanks for the link over to my Digges piece. It could likely use a polish, but I’m pretty sure I was inspired to research/write it after seeing this movie. He’s such a bastard!

So glad you handled this one, my favorite pre-Code title Cagney appeared in not named “The Public Enemy.” So what if it’s a Frankie Darro movie. Great job!

    Danny · April 12, 2013 at 4:34 pm

    Cagney is the glue that holds the film together– a representative of everything wrong with the system he begins to fall in love with. And thanks for the Digges piece, he’s someone who I’d seen in other films but never really noticed before this movie. That really helped flesh him out. 🙂

Judy · April 12, 2013 at 1:53 pm

I love all the detail and background you have worked into this piece, with so much to think about – like your crucial point “that while Patsy becomes reformed by this microcosm of democracy, he’s left his own racketeering ring to continue in its stead. Society remains overall corrupt, still putting people like Thompson in power and run by the wills of the powerful.” I think it’s all too plain through the film that Thompson is the reality and Patsy and Dorothy – and the boys’ society – only the dream of how things could be run. This must be one of the strongest films in that Gangsters 3 set. I agree it is a pity Darro’s career fizzled out just because of his height – he is so good in both this and ‘Wild Boys of the Road’. I do also love Cagney in this even if for once he isn’t really the lead, and the stills you have put together really give a flavour of the film. Great stuff, Danny.

    Danny · April 12, 2013 at 4:46 pm

    It’s really fascinating though, right? Like the producers decided to take the oppressive, horrible society and show how it could become pure by faith and hard work. The problem is that they don’t show how to avoid the pitfalls of the system that they’re trying to emulate, and the pitfalls constantly lurk in the background. It doesn’t hurt the movie since it’s not something you’ll pick up on during the course of watching, but the questions linger if you think about it too long. I wish Cagney’s character hadn’t stayed and went to go try his reforms on the real world, or that he’d at least shut down his old vote getting operations. But, hey, that’s not as happy I suppose.

    And Cagney really elevates the film, too. I’m glad I picked this one for the blog-a-thon, since it’s one of the rare films he isn’t front and center, but he still makes the role very much his own.

    Thanks for the comment!

      Judy · April 13, 2013 at 7:43 am

      Danny, I should also have said thanks for linking to my old review on this one. And yes, a fascinating film to think about.

R. D. Finch · April 12, 2013 at 2:26 pm

Danny, a great read on a film I haven’t seen, and I second the praise others have given your vivid selection of stills and photos from the film. When I saw the picture of the boys all lined up, I immediately thought “Forerunner of the cross-section military units in WW II pictures,” and a little bit later you discussed just this point. I often say that I find the Warners pre-Codes the most satisfying for several reasons, one of which is their topicality. This paradoxically makes them seem less dated to me than many other films of the time that don’t deal with social issues the way the Warners pictures do. Maybe that’s because we’re still dealing with some of these issues or variations of them today.

Frankie Darro was so good in “Wild Boys of the Road” that I’m pleased to hear he got another plum part in this picture. I fully believe it when you say how good he is. (And I have indeed seen him playing jockeys in other films of the 30s). A couple of reactions I had to your description of the plot were 1) that third act sounds absolutely wacky, and 2) the resolution of the boys’ grievances through violent mob action does seem antithetical to its anti-Fascist sensibility, and 3) what a strange mix of hard-boiled realism and idealism the film sounds. Thanks for contributing your post to the Cagney Blogathon, another addition to the excellent selection of posts on Cagney’s lesser known early work.

    Danny · April 12, 2013 at 4:53 pm

    You make an excellent point there. There’s such a surge of vitality that this film encapsulates, and the issues that the movie captures are far from done. The commentary track for the movie goes into what a firestorm boys reformatories were in the 1930’s, and they note that the film is based on a real experiment done in New Jersey. Of course, now it’s the site of a prison…

    Like I said to Judy, the film’s resolution is problematic. The film is kinetic enough that it doesn’t suffer too much from it, but it puts the movie a few notches below more honest films like Wild Boys and I Was a Fugitive From a Chain gang.

    Thanks for hosting, Richard. It was a pleasure to join in!

KimWilson · April 12, 2013 at 2:51 pm

Warner Bros. made a lot of films like this in the 1930s–some better than others. I’ve never seen this, but feel as though I had after reading your review. You provide a lot of pertinent details and the like. Interesting review and great pics!

    Danny · April 12, 2013 at 4:47 pm

    Thanks, Kim! If you get a chance, it’s a blast to watch!

FlickChick · April 12, 2013 at 6:11 pm

Really well done post. Great photos and analysis of the film I saw it many years ago (when I was deep in my Cagney crush). But wait, I’m still in the crush and would like the chance to see this again!

    Danny · April 12, 2013 at 6:22 pm

    Luckily it’s cheap and available (unfortunately unlike Cagney 😉 )!

The Lady Eve · April 13, 2013 at 10:14 pm

I haven’t seen “Mayor of Hell” but got a really good sense of it through your post – words and pictures and extras – very well done. Your enthusiasm is contagious and I hope to see it soon.

    Danny · April 14, 2013 at 7:52 pm

    Thanks for coming by, and I’m glad you enjoyed it! Hope you catch the movie soon!

      The Lady Eve · April 15, 2013 at 8:16 am

      Just received a copy of TCM’s “Now Playing” for May and see that it will be airing on the 30th at 7am Eastern/4 am Pacific. My DVR will be set.

        Danny · April 15, 2013 at 11:26 pm

        Glad to hear it!

Classicfilmboy · April 14, 2013 at 11:19 am

Nicely done. I haven’t seen the film but I have a good sense of what it is and will look for it.

    Danny · April 14, 2013 at 7:48 pm

    Definitely check it out. 🙂

Le · April 17, 2013 at 7:58 am

Just came across your site days ago. This seem to be very intreresting, since I like prison movies with a social issue, like I am a Fugitive from a chain gang. Of course, Cagney only makes it more worth watching to me.
Don’t forget to WATCH my contribution to the blogathon! 🙂

    Danny · April 17, 2013 at 5:21 pm

    I liked your video a lot (and your English is very good!)! You should definitely check this out, it looks like it’s in your wheelhouse. Thanks for the comment!

CheckYourPrivelge · March 27, 2018 at 1:01 pm


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